Today we will talk about what is a computer. In simple language, a computer is an electronic device. You might already know this answer. So you must be wondering why to write an article about something we already know everything.
Just wait. Today I want to tell you what are the basics of a computer, you may know something in advance, but my objective is that you should be informed about the complete journey and working computer and not half of it.
Do you know how it works? Who made it? How many phases computer has passed to get minimized in the size of a laptop and attained portability? How many changes have been seen in the characteristics of computers in these years?
The computer that we are using today is the result of years of hard work of many scientists and researchers. Today I want to give you the complete information about this machine along with What machinery is called a Computer, What are the main parts of it, What is the full form of the computer and How does it work. Then, let’s start this without any delay.
What is a Computer
A computer is a machine that performs tasks according to certain instructions. There is an electronic device, which is designed to work with information. The word computer is derived from the Latin word “computare”. This means calculating or calculating.
It has three main functions. The first is to take the data which we also call Input, the second task is to process that data and the other task is to show the processed data which is also called Output.
Input Data -> Process the Data -> Output
Who invented computer? The father of the modern computer is called Charles Babbage. Because he was the first to design a mechanical computer, which is also known as Analytical Engine. In this, data was inserted with the help of Punch Card.
So we can call a computer an advanced electronic device that takes raw data from the user in the form of input, then processes that data through a program (set of Instruction) and finally the result as Output Publishes. It processes both numerical and non numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
What is the full form of Computer?
Technically there is no full form of computer. Still people around the world has made an imaginary full form of computer,
- C – Commonly
- O – Operated
- M – Machine
- P – Particularly
- U – Used for
- T – Technical / Training and
- E – Educational
- R – Research
History of Computer – Generation of Computer
It cannot be properly verified that the when development of computers was exactly started. But officially computer development has been classified according to generation. They are divided into 5 parts from the main tower.
As computers are developed, they were divided into different generations to make them easier to understand in a precise way.
First Generation of Computer – 1940-1956 “Vacuum Tubes”
The first generation of computers used Vaccum tubes for circuitry and Magnetic Drum for memory. They used to be very big in size. A lot of power was used to run them.
Due to being too big, there was also a lot of heating problems due to which it used to malfunction many times. Machine language was used in them. For example, UNIVAC and ENIAC computers.
Second Generation of Computers – 1956-1963 “Transistors”
In second-generation computers, transistors replaced vacuum tubes. Transistor took very less space, was smaller, was faster, was cheaper, and was more energy efficient. They used to generate less heat than the first generation computers, but still, there was a problem of heat in it
High-level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN were used in them.
Third Generation of Computers – 1964-1971 “Integrated Circuits”
Integrated Circuit was first used in third-generation computers. In which the transistors were cut into a silicon chip which is called Semi-Conductor. Due to this, the ability to do computer processing increased to a great extent.
For the first time, monitors, keyboards, and operating systems were used to make computers of this generation more user friendly. It was first launched in the market.
Fourth Generation of Computers – 1971-1985 “Microprocessors”
It is the specialty of the Fourth-generation that Microprocessor was used in it. Thousands of integrated circuits were embedded into a single silicon chip. This made it very easy to reduce the size of the machine.
The use of microprocessors increased the efficiency of the computer even more. This work was able to do a lot of calculations.
Fifth Generation of Computers – 1985-present “Artificial Intelligence”
Fifth-generation belongs to today’s time, where Artificial Intelligence has established its dominance. Now, many new technologies like Speech recognition, Parallel Processing, Quantum calculations are being used in the new technology
This is a generation where due to computer artificial intelligence, the ability to make decisions on its own has come. Gradually all its works will be automated.
Who invented the Computer
Who is the father of the modern computer? Many such people have contributed to this Computing Field. But maximum efforts and credits are given to Charles Babbage. Because he was the first Analytical Engine that came out in 1837.
The concept of ALU, Basic Flow Control, and Integrated Memory was implemented in this engine. Today’s computer was designed by basing itself on this model. This is why his contribution is the highest. He is also known as The father of the computer.
Definition of a Computer
There are many components in any modern day digital computer but some of them are very important such as Input device, Output Device, CPU (Central Processing Unit), Mass Storage Device and Memory.
|Input||Accepts the Data|
|Processing||Processes the Data|
|Output||Gives the Processed Data|
|Storage||Stores the results|
How does the computer work
Input (Data) : Input is the step in which Raw Information is inserted into the computer using Input Device. It can be a letter, picture or even a video.
Process : The data input during the process is processed according to the instruction. This is a completely internal process.
Output : The data that has already been processed during the processing is shown in the Result as output. And if we want, we can also save this result and keep it in memory for future use.
What is inside of a Computer
If you have ever looked inside a computer case, then you must have found that there are many small components inside, they look very complicated, but they are not that complicated. Now, I will give you some information about these components.
The main circuit board of any computer is called the motherboard. It looks like a thin plate but it holds many things like CPU, memory, connectors for hard drive and optical drive, to control expansion card video and audio, along with all of the computer Ports connection. If seen, the motherboard is directly or indirectly connected with all parts of the computer.
CPU / Processor
Do you know what is Central Processing Unit i.e. CPU? It is also called the brain of a computer. It is found in the motherboard inside the computer case. It is also called the brain of the computer. It keeps an eye on all the activities that are within a computer. The higher the speed of a processor, the faster it will be able to do the processing.
We also know RAM as Random Acess Memory. This is the short term memory of the system. Whenever the computer does some calculations, it temporarily saves that result in RAM. If the computer shuts down then this data is also lost. If we are writing a document, then to save it from being destroyed, we should save our data in between. If saved in Data Hard Drive by saving, then it can remain for a long time.
RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM there is, the better for us.
Hard Drive is the component where software, documents, and other files are saved. In this, the data stays and is being stored for a long time.
Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit’s job is to take power from the main power supply and supply it to other components as per the requirement.
All computers have Expansion Slots so that we can add an Expansion Card in the future. They are also called PCI (Peripheral Components Interconnect) cards. But nowadays the motherboard already has many built-in slots.
Names of some Expansion Cards that we can use to update old computers :
Bluetooth Card (Adapter)
Computer Hardware and Software
We can call computer hardware any physical device that we use in our computer, whereas computer software means the collection of codes that we install in our machine’s Hard Drive to run the hardware.
For example, the computer monitor that we use to see the output, the mouse that we use to navigate, are all computer hardware. At the same time, the Internet Browser with which we visit the website, and the operating system in which that Internet Browser runs. We call such things as software.
We can say that a computer is a combination of software and hardware, both have the same roles, both need to work together.
Types of Computer
Whenever we ever hear the use of the word computer, only the picture of a personal computer comes into our mind. Let me tell you that there are many types of computers. They come in various shapes and sizes. We use them as per the requirement, such as ATM to withdraw money, Scanner to scan a barcode, Calculator to do a big calculation.
These are all different types of computers.
Many people use desktop computers for their homes, schools, and personal work. They are designed in such a way that we can keep them on our desk. They have many parts such as Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Computer Case / Cabinet.
You must have known about laptops which are battery-powered, they are very portable so that they can be taken anywhere and anytime.
Now let’s talk about Tablet which we also call Handheld Computer as it can be easily be used from our hands.
It does not have Keyboard and Mouse, just a touch-sensitive screen that is used for typing and navigation. Example- iPad.
A server is a computer of some sort that we use to exchange information. For example, whenever we search for something on the Internet, all those things are stored in the server.
Other types of computers
Let us now know what other types of computers are.
Smartphone : When the Internet is enabled in a normal cell phone while using it, we can do many things, then such a cell phone is called a smartphone.
Wearable : Wearable technology is a general term for a group of devices – including fitness trackers and smartwatches – that are designed so that they can be worn throughout the day. These devices are often called wearables.
Game Console : This game console is also a special type of computer that is used to play video games on your TV.
TV : TV is also a type of computer which now includes many applications or apps that convert it into Smart Tv. Whereas now you can stream videos from the Internet directly to your TV.
Uses of Computer – Applications of Computer
Where is a computer used? If seen, we have been using computers everywhere in our lives and will continue to do so. It has become a part of us. I have written some of its uses for your information below.
Use of computers in the field of education
They play a vital role in the field of education, if a student needs information about something, then with the help of computer information becomes available within a few minutes. Research has shown that with the help of computers, the learning performance of any student can increase significantly. Nowadays, concepts can be taught and learned while sitting at home with the help of Online Classes.
Health and Medicine
It is a boon for Health and Medicine industry. With the help of computers, patients are treated very easily nowadays. Nowadays everything has gone digital, which makes it very easy to know about the disease, and according to that its treatment is also possible. Operations have also become easy.
Use of computers in the field of science
This is the result of science itself. This makes research very easy. Nowadays a new trend is going on which is also called Collaboratory under which scientists all around the world can work together and can contribute to the field of science.
It has a huge role in businesses to increase productivity and competitiveness. It is mainly used in Marketing, Retailing, Banking, Stock Trading, etc. Due to all the things being digital here, its processing has become very fast and nowadays more importance is being given to Cashless Transaction.
Recreation and Entertainment
It has become a new hangout for entertainment, talk about anything whether it be Movies, Sports or restaurants everywhere they are used.
Nowadays the Government is also giving more focus on their use. If we talk about Traffic, Tourism, Information & Broadcasting, Education, Aviation, our work in all these places has become very easy because of computers.
Their use in the army has also increased to a great extent. With the help of which our army has become more powerful now. Because nowadays everything is controlled with the help of computers.
There are many places where we use it according to our needs.
Benefits of computer
It will not be wrong to say that the computer has made our lives very comfortable with the help of its incredible speed, accuracy, and storage.
With this, humans can save anything and find anything easily whenever they want. We can say that the computer is a very versatile machine because it is very flexible in doing its jobs.
Apart from this, we can also say that the computer is a very versatile machine because of its flexibility in doing its work, while these machines also have some important advantages and disadvantages.
Let’s know about them.
Multitasking is a very big advantage of a computer.
In this, a person can easily perform multiple tasks, multiple operations, numerical problems in just a few seconds.
Computers can easily calculate in trillion of instructions per second.
Now it is no longer just a calculating device.
Now it has become a very important part of our life.
Its great advantage is its high speed, which helps it to complete any task in a very short time.
With the help of computers, all the operations can be done immediately, otherwise, it will take a lot of time for us to do them.
Cost / Stores do large amounts of data
This is a low-cost solution. Because in this a person can save a large amount of data in a low budget. A very high quantity of information can be stored using a centralized database so that the cost can be reduced to a great extent.
Computers are very accurate in their calculations, their chances of making a mistake are negligible.
Protecting digital data is called data security. Computer protects our digital data from unauthorized users such as a cyberattack or access attack.
Disadvantages of a Computer
Now let us know about some disadvantages of computers:
Virus and Hacking Attacks
A virus is a destructive program and hacking is called unauthorized access in which the Owner does not know about you.
These Viruses can be easily spread through email attachment, sometimes even via USB, or they can be accessed from your infected websites by your computer.
At the same time, once it reaches your computer, then it ruins your computer.
Online Cyber Crimes
Computers are used to perform cyber crimes like cyber-attacks, online bullying, etc. Cyber stalking and identity theft are also covered under these online cyber-crimes.
Decrease in employment opportunity
Since the computer is capable of doing many tasks simultaneously, there is a huge loss of employment opportunity.
Therefore, from the banking sector to any governmental sectors, you can see that all the computers are given more importance in the place of people. Therefore unemployment is only increasing.
Talking about the other disadvantage, it does not have an IQ, it depends on the users at all, it has no feeling, it cannot take any decision by itself.
A lot of technological changes are coming in the computer day by day. Every day, it is becoming more affordable and more and more efficient. As the need of the people increases, so will there be more changes in it. Previously it was of the shape of a house, now it is going in our hands.
There will come a time when it will be controlled by our mind. Nowadays scientists are doing more research on the Optical Computer, DNA computer, Neural Computer, and Quantum Computer. Along with this, much attention is also being paid to Artificial Intelligence so that it can do its work smoothly by its own.
I sincerely hope that I have given you a brief idea about what What computer is and Everything you should know about computer. I tried giving full information about it and I hope you guys have understood. I request all of you readers that you too should share this information in your neighborhood, relatives, friends and friends, so that our awareness will be there and it will benefit everyone. I need the support of you guys so that I can convey more new information to you.
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